Need an account? Click here to sign up. Download Free PDF. Alvarenga Lopes. A short summary of this paper. Download PDF. Translate PDF. Finn et al 2 discovered the effective maternal prophylaxis by using the anti-Rh immunoglobulin. Although immunoprophylaxis Methods has greatly reduced the appearance of new cases of maternal A prospective cross-sectional study was carried out comprising 65 pdf performed download 36 anemic fetuses of mothers immunization, its incidence hemoglobin approximately 1.
The biventricular outer births. Considering our general population, one case of Rh isoim- diameter BOD was obtained by M-mode evaluation. Previous munization occurs in each to pregnancies 1. In addition, multivariate allowing the development of mechanisms of compensation, the analysis showed that fetal hemoglobin concentration decreases major one being the increase in cardiac output responsible for as BOD increases, independently of the influence of gestational age on that parameter.
As the download process evolves, the mechanisms of fetal com- Conclusion hemoglobin disappear or become ineffective. A reduction in intra- An inverse correlation exists between fetal hemoglobin con- pdf volume occurs with fluid loss to the extravascular com- centration and BOD measurement, regardless of gestational age.
Therefore, in severe fetal anemia, high output heart failure Key words occurs, in which the fetal heart increases its output through an ecocardiography, fetal anemia, hemoglobin, isoimmunized increase in heart rate or in stroke volume, or in both, to supply pregnant women the peripheral oxygen needs. Later, that technique was used aiming at assessing the relation of dependence between the associated with the M-mode technique, therefore allowing the continuous variables, pretransfusional concentration of fetal he- obtainment of more precise measurements.
De Vore et al 10 carried out a study correlating the diameter of Multivariate analysis was used to assess the persistence of the the ventricles with the biparietal diameter, as a parameter of correlation between pretransfusional fetal hemoglobin and BOD, in- fetal growth. Those authors reported the impossibility of using dependently of the effect of other variables, such as gestational age.
Then, in a new study 16, they reported the efficacy Results of the femoral measurement for assessing fetal growth and corre- lated the former with the diameter of the ventricles.
The study comprised 65 cordocenteses performed in 36 fetu- Hemoglobin accordance with these studies and aiming at elucidating ses. The fetal conditions at the moment of intravascular transfusion, the fetal cardiac response to the anemic process, we carried out characterized by the level of pretransfusional hemoglobin, BOD, the present study, which aimed at assessing pdf following: whether and femur measurements, are shown in table I. BOD greater than the reference value for download. Methods An inverse correlation was observed between the pretransfu- sional hemoglobin concentration in fetal blood and BOD measure- Thirty-six isoimmunized download women from the Fetal Me- ment fig.
All had single concentration, the BOD measurement increases in size. The gestational age ranged from pddf to 34 Fetal hemoglobin was obtained immediately before the intra- vascular transfusions. Gestational age was corrected based on the pdf per- formed during the first gestational trimester. Initially, a 4-chamber echographic image of the fetal heart was obtained through a transverse image of the fetal abdomen with slight cephalic angulation at an intermediate level between the transverse image of the abdomen and the skull roof.
Then, with hemoglobin interventricular septum perpendicular to the transducer and with the M-mode cursor placed at the level of the atrioventri- cular valves, hemoblobin tracing of waves was detected and the image was frozen. Then, the biventricular outer diameter was measured between a Femur length cm the right ventricular epicardium and the left ventricular epicardium Fig. The BOD values above the 95th percentile in regard hemoglobin pvf the femur length measurement were considered altered.
This BOD cm 2. A direct correlation was observed between BOD measurement The evaluation of the degree of fetal anemia can only be esta- and gestational age fig. Therefore, as pregnancy progresses, blished in an invasive manner as follows: 1 directly: by determining BOD increases in size. IIImultivariate analysis shows that BOD increases centesis by determining the bilirubin level, considering the gesta- as fetal hemoglobin concentration decreases correlation coefficient, tional age.
So far, however, we BOD cm 3 have not pdf able hemoglobin establish a method that is effective in recognizing the level of fetal anemia, so as to consider invasive therapy. Once again, the studies Femur length cm performed were not sufficient to predict, by using a single method, the impairment level of the anemic fetus. The gestational age significant association, which allows us to state that the pdf ranged from 21 to 34 weeks mean, Seventeen fetuses were above the 95th percentile, con- Based on the findings of this study, we observed that BOD sidering the normogram by De Vore et al 16 fig.
That finding measurement is a promising noninvasive investigational method indicates that the fetal heart responds to the hyperdynamic cir- for detecting fetal anemia and for following up the fetuses as culatory state resulting from anemia with an increase in the BOD gestation evolves, because the correlation between that parameter measurement. We Through multivariate analysis, we observed download, independently can, download, emphasize that BOD can be an echographic pre- of the physiological factor of fetal growth leading to the concomi- dictor of the hemoglobin level in fetuses of isoimmunized pregnant tant growth of the cardiac chambers, the drop in fetal hemoglobin women.
References 1. Circulation ; 2. Experimental studies on the prevention of Rh haemolytic disease. Brit Med ; The cyanmethemoglobin method works on the principle A new non-invasive hemoglobin estimation instrument of conversion of hemoglobin to cyanmethemoglobin by has been introduced, NBM In this instrument a sensor is the addition of potassium cyanide and ferricyanide whose placed on the thumb and optical measurements are taken after absorbance is measured at nm in a photoelectric calorimeter temporary blood flow occlusion .
A study conducted in Korea against a standard solution . There is who were correctly identified as ineligible to donate blood a need to have non-cyanide methods to avoid environmental sensitivity. The correlation between auto-analyzer and NBM- pollution by cyanide reagents. A study was conducted in a tertiary was 0. The results showed excellent was However, the authors correlation among the three methods.
The cyanide free methods have mentioned that based on their findings this non-invasive also have advantages from safety standpoint as well as cost when instrument should be used as a hemoglobin tool with caution .
This is based on the principle which results in an inaccurate estimate when absorbance is that the colour of a drop of blood could reliably indicate anemia. HemoCue hemoglobin The colour would be matched against predetermined shades of photometer now widely used compensates for this. The system red. Blood is placed in the microcuvette which reacts dl respectively.
Downlkad drop of blood is placed on the strip provided with sodium deoxycholate, releasing hemoglobin by hemolysing and after 30 seconds the color of blood is matched against the erythrocytes. Then sodium nitrite hemoglobin hemoglobin to shades on the scale . The colour technology and test paper methemoglobin which, together with sodium azide, gives strip available determines the accuracy of the method.
With the azidemethemoglobin. The absorbance is measured at two available technology to perfect the material on which blood can wavelengths nm and nm in order download compensate for be absorbed and computerized spectrophotometric analysis to turbidity [18,19]. HemoCue is yet another method for estimation of Hb. However, a study of HemoCue to be This study also concluded that in contrast to the other and should not be used for hemoglobin estimation .
LimitedIndia to screen anemia in community settings that Hemoglobin is also routinely measured using automated pdf six hemogobin shades of Hb concentration on a paper-card, at haematology analyzers which are reliable and accurate but interval of two units of Hb measurement and special adsorbent expensive. This system is an automated blood cell counter which test-strips.
(PDF) Methods for Hemoglobin Estimation: A Review of “What Works” | Sutapa B. Neogi - back-story.co
It is a simple device hemolobin estimating Hb. By matching measures hemoglobin using non-cyanide method. A cross- the color of a drop of blood on a test-strip with the shades on the sectional study carried out among pregnant women in Sudan found paper-card, an estimate of the Hb concentration can be arrived that hemoglobin concentration measured through HemoCue has upon.
A small pilot carried out at AIIMS gave encouraging results lower levels of precision as compared to the automated analyzer Personal communication.for hemoglobin estimation especially in rural areas. There is a need to have non-cyanide methods to avoid environmental pollution by cyanide reagents. A study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in Mumbai which compared cyanide method (HiCN) with non-cyanide methods (alkaline hematin method. Sep 12, · reveals a WBC of 10,, hemoglobin of 9 g/dL, hematocrit of 28 %, MCV of 90 fl, and platelets of , His reticulocyte count is 12%. His LDH and indirect bilirubin are elevated. His haptoglobin is low at 5 mg/dl. His urine dipstick is positive for hemoglobin. His creatinine is normal. Download Free PDF. Methods for Hemoglobin Estimation: A Review of “What Works” Hemoglobin color scale developed by HCS is another potential method that can be used in ield situations. However, such methods should be further investigated through larger studies before actual back-story.coted Reading Time: 13 mins.
Saxena R. Download of Hematology. But in the same study, the correlation auto-analyzer has been done. The aim was to classify them into 0. It was thought that this classification would preferred by blood donors  except for one study which be enough to decide on the treatment hemoglobin referral for further recommended use of a non-invasive method in ICU .
However, Indian studies have concluded that HemoCue result is an overestimate compared Assessment of hemoglobin is the first step in investigating to cyanmethemoglobin and the authors have suggested further anemia. When laboratories are not available, anemia is diagnosed studies to validate this method [48,49] whereas in Mexico based on clinical signs. This entails a lot of inter and intra- underestimation of Hb by HemoCue and its poor accuracy has observer variations.
In rural communities where detection and been reported . Hemoglobin and specificity of HemoCue treatment of anemia is most beneficial, an alternative method, varies with the type of blood sample-venous or capillary. Sensitivity and specificity ranges from However, hemooglobin study conducted in India respectively [20,21,24,]. A study in showed that  and Zanzibar East Africa  has concluded that HCS HemoCue is a useful instrument for routine screening of iron- should not be used for hemoglobin estimation as the degree of deficiency anemia pdf children; however, for optimal accuracy accuracy is not clinically acceptable.
In contrast to this another attention downloae be given to the method of blood collection . A pdf study in states that WHO color scale HemoCue measurements hemoglobin more accurate and reliable when is an inaccurate method to screen anemia during blood donation arterial blood is used  while capillary hemoglobin values . Other modified versions of HemoCue have or download population [32, 33] and is sufficiently accurate in also been evaluated which have identical analytical method and estimating Hb levels in infants between zero and four months can detect Hb at pdf low concentrations up to 0.
Yet, it is prone to inter-observer variability and has have been agreed upon for their use in field . There are certain sources of error which may has inbuilt disadvantages such as subjective to visual color occur by use of HemoCue such as presence of air bubbles in the comparison, need for accurate pipetting, fading downloac comparator, light path , poor mixing of blood sample if collected in EDTA poor sensitivity and dowbload.
Therefore, download is important to provide proper specificity of cyanmethemoglobin to be lower than HemoCue training to end users. HemoCue is appropriate for surveys that [20,21].
Also, there are non-cyanide methods which are much are conducted over large areas and eliminates the need for use safer than cyanmethemoglobin and with comparable results of different pdf allowing screening of anemia in remote [17, 37]. Cyanmethemoglobin is the gold standard but its use in areas pdf adequate lab facilities . Besides screening for hemoglobin in remote areas is limited as it requires accurate dilution anemia it also permits decision making regarding blood donations of blood sample download electrical power for the spectrophotometer as it provides on the spot results download. HemoCue has also been .
Hemoglobin this instrument is very operation theatres , and liver transplant patients undergoing expensive and cannot be used at health care facilities in rural antiviral therapy  and can also aid in measurement of blood areas because of the requirement of a laboratory. On the other loss at caesarean section  but should be used with caution in hand, NBM, a non-invasive method has a lower sensitivity ICU patients .
On the contrary, this non- few of them are suitable for field conditions. So, keeping in mind invasive method was found to be download in hemoglobin of precision and the attributes of all the methods and thinking from the perspective screening for blood donors but certain limitations will only be of developing countries, HemoCue seems hemoglobin be the method detected with its greater use in different settings and situations of choice for initial screening of anemia because it is reliable, .
There are recommendations put forward by a a prerequisite is hemogolbin simple and rapid tool for objective assessment review which should be taken into account regarding the use of of Hb. However, before making any decision for large scale use of HemoCue such as addressing economical, clinical and downolad any method one hfmoglobin keep in mind that it costs a considerable issues before its implementation, adequate training of end users, amount of pdf [55,74]. Therefore, pdf like HemoCue and and dpf for venous and arterial sampling, internal quality HCS-HLL warrant further investigation at large scale and if found control and monitoring of download .
For prevention and to be reliable can be used as tools for screening of anemia in both urban and resource poor settings. Table 1: Advantages and Disadvantages of different methods for hemoglobin estimation. Inexpensive in limited quantity can be ; 1: 92— Rapid prf Simple Tallqvist method Results influenced by 2.
Worldwide prevalence pdf anemia — WHO global No reagents required database on anemia. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. A systematic analysis of global anemia burden from to Inexpensive Provides only ranges of Blood. Simple hemoglobin levels Copper-sulfate Rapid Difficult to conduct in rural 4. Nutritional status of children and prevalence of anemia method Interpretation areas among children, adolescent girls and pregnant hemoglobin Mumbai: IIPS.
Subjective interpretation Uses durable dowbload Expensive 6. Asia Pac J Public Health. Lovibond screening and calibrated pipettes 7. Prevalence of anemia comparator Electricity not required Needs to be read in natural and its determinants among nonpregnant and pregnant women in Simple light India. Rapid Requires large drop of download 8.
Inaccurate Prevalence of anemia among pregnant women and adolescent girls in Color developed is unstable 16 districts of India. Food Nutr Bull. Simple Inter-observer variability 9. Burden of anemia Sahli technique Cheap Dowwnload of manual pipetting- and its socioeconomic determinants among adolescent girls in India. No international standard Study Group. Pdf of Time consuming Prevalence and predictors of anemia in a population of North Indian cyanmethemoglobin : a Turbidity can deviate the Direct cyanmeth- children.
Estimation of Haemoglobin by the Alkaline Haematin available is toxic Method. Br Med J. Simple An evaluation of Download color Portable Inter-observer variability methods of screening for anaemia. Bull Hemoglobin Health Organ. Cheap Simple Elwood PC, Jacobs A. Haemoglobin estimation: a comparison of Portable different techniques. Rapid- immediate Haemoglobin measurement: the reliability of some Battery operated simple techniques for use in a primary health care setting.
Accurate which makes it expensive Reliable Evaluation of hemoglobin Easy to use in dowhload of blood donors deferred by the copper sulphate method for settings where skills hemoglobin estimation. Transfus Apher Sci. BMC Clin Pathol. Automated Accurate Transport of samples from ; 5.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol. Trop Doct. Anaemia: a useful indicator of hemoglobin-meter and automated hematology analyzer in neglected disease burden and control. PLoS Med. Balasubramaniam P, Malathi A. Comparative study of hemoglobin hospital, Sudan. Diagn Pathol. J Postgrad Med. Clin Chem. Evaluation of the alkaline haematin D method for haemoglobin HemoCue estimation in east Africa. Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus.
Castro V. The new non-invasive occlusion spectroscopy hemoglobin Neville RG. Evaluation of portable haemoglobinometer in general Comparison of the accuracy of noninvasive hemoglobin monitoring practice. Comparative Noninvasive methods standard method as the gold standard. Afr J Reprod Health. Vox Sang. Comparison of the A comparison of three accuracy of noninvasive hemoglobin sensor NBM and portable methods of hemoglobin monitoring in patients undergoing spine hemoglobinometer HemoCue with an automated hematology surgery.
Ann Lab Med. Accuracy of a continuous noninvasive hemoglobin monitor in Haemoglobin color scale practical answer to a vital need intensive care unit patients. Crit Care Med. Department of blood safety and Clinical Technology. World Health