Romanian is a part of the Eastern Romance sub-branch of Romance languagesa linguistic group that evolved from several dialects of Vulgar Latin which separated from the Western Romance languages in the course of the period from the 5th to the 8th centuries. Romanian is also known as Moldovan in Moldova, although the Constitutional Court of Moldova ruled in that "the official language of the republic is Romanian". Numerous immigrant Romanian speakers live scattered across many other regions and countries worldwide, with large populations in ItalySpain download facetime for mac os x 10.5 8, Germanythe United KingdomCanadaand the United States. Most scholars agree that two major dialects developed from Common Romanian by the 10th century. The Polish chronicler Stanislaw Orzechowski Orichovius notes in that In their language they call themselves Romini from the Romans, while we call them Wallachians from the Italians. Pierre Lescalopier writes in that those who live in Moldavia, Wallachia and the vast part of Transylvania, "consider themselves dowlnoad true descendants of the Romans and call their language romanechte, which is Roman". Dimitrie Cantemirin his Downloaad Moldaviae Berlin,points out that the inhabitants of Moldavia, Wallachia and Transylvania spoke the same language.
AT A,11, A,22, AT A A,11,22, Antenna Beam Use A Use A Use AT. In Radio Serv. Svc Use 6ROY. Series 1.33. Report "Notice - Vintage Manuals". Please fill this form, we will try to respond as soon as possible. The Amiga provided a significant upgrade from 8-bit computers, such as the Commodore 64, and the platform quickly grew in popularity among computer enthusiasts.
The name "Amiga" was chosen because it is the Spanish word for female friend, and alphabetically it appears before Apple in lists of computer makers. It originated as a project code-named "Lorraine", therefore the female was used instead of the male and general version Amigo. The best selling model, the Amigadownooad introduced in and 1.3 one of the leading home computers of the late s and early s with approximately six million sold.
Finally, as the third generation, the A and the A were released in However, poor marketing and failure to repeat the technological advances of the first systems meant that the Amiga quickly lost its market share to competing platforms, such as the fourth generation game consoles, Apple Macintosh, and IBM PC compatibles.
Based on the Motorola family of microprocessors, the machine has a custom chipset with graphics and sound capabilities that were unprecedented for the price, and a pre-emptive multitasking operating system called AmigaOS. Although early Commodore advertisements attempt to cast the computer as an all-purpose business machine, especially when outfitted with the Amiga Sidecar PC compatibility addon, the Amiga was most commercially successful as a home computer, with a wide range of games and creative software.
The platform became particularly popular for gaming rom programming demos. It also found a prominent role in the desktop video, video production, and show control business, leading to affordable video editing systems such as the Video Toaster. If the disk to be added is not blank, old partition information can be removed with gpart delete. See gpart rlm for details. The partition scheme is created, and then a single partition is added.
To improve performance on newer disks with larger hardware block sizes, the partition is aligned to one megabyte boundaries:. Depending on use, several smaller partitions may be desired. See gpart 8 for options to create partitions smaller than a whole disk. This happens commonly with virtual machines, when the virtual disk turns out to be too small and is enlarged.
Sometimes a disk image is written to a USB memory stick, but does not use the full capacity. Here we describe how to resize or grow disk contents to take rownload of increased capacity. In this example, there is only one SATA disk in the system, so the drive will appear as ada0. If the disk was formatted with the GPT partitioning scheme, it may show as "corrupted" because the GPT backup partition table is no longer at the end of the drive.
Fix the backup partition table with gpart :. Now the additional space on the disk is available for use by a new partition, or an existing partition can be expanded:. Partitions can only be resized into contiguous free space. Here, the last partition on the disk is the swap partition, but the second partition is the one that needs to be resized. Swap partitions only contain temporary data, so it can safely be unmounted, deleted, and then recreate the third partition after resizing the second partition.
There is risk of data loss when modifying the partition table of a mounted file system. However, if absolutely necessary, a mounted file system can be resized after disabling GEOM safety features:. Resize the partition, leaving room to recreate a swap partition of the desired size. The partition to resize is specified with -iand the new desired size with -s.
Optionally, alignment of the partition is controlled with -a. This only modifies the size of the partition. The file system in the partition will be expanded in a separate step. Recreate the swap partition and activate it. If no size is specified with -sall remaining space is used:. If the file system is ZFS, the resize is triggered by running the online subcommand with -e :. Both the partition and the file system on it have now been resized to use the newly-available disk space.
USB 3. For a custom kernel, be sure that the following lines are present in the kernel configuration file:. The rest of this section demonstrates how to verify that a USB storage device is recognized by FreeBSD and how to configure the 1.3 so that it can be used. Use dmesg to confirm that the drive appears in the system message 13. It should look something like this:. The brand, device node da0 rom, speed, and size will differ according to the device.
Alternately, usbconfig can be used to list the device. Refer to usbconfig 8 for more information about this command. If the device has not been formatted, refer to Adding Disks for instructions on how to format and create partitions on the USB drive. Allowing untrusted users to mount arbitrary media, by enabling vfs. Most file systems were not built to safeguard against malicious devices. To make the device mountable as a 1.3 user, one solution is to make all users of the device a member of the operator group using pw 8.
This will exclude the first three SCSI disks da0 to da2 from belonging to the operator group. Replace 3 with the number of internal SCSI disks. Refer to devfs. Since this only takes effect after the next reboot, use sysctl to set this variable now:. The final step is to create a directory where the file system is to be mounted. This directory needs to be owned by the user that is to mount the file system.
If the device is formatted with a FAT file system, the user can mount it using:. Reload the configuration if autofs 5 and devd 8 are already running:. The directory is named after the file system label. If the label is missing, the directory is named after the device node. The file system is transparently mounted on the first access, and unmounted after a period of inactivity. Automounted drives can also be unmounted manually:.
This mechanism is typically used for memory cards and USB memory sticks. 1.3 Disc CD media provide a number of features that differentiate them from conventional disks. They are designed so that they can be read continuously without delays to move the head between tracks. While CD media do have tracks, these refer to a section of data dowbload be read continuously, and not a physical property of the disk.
The ISO file system was designed to deal with these differences. This chapter demonstrates the use of several command line utilities. If a custom kernel is used, the options that need to be present in the kernel configuration file vary by the type of device. On FreeBSD versions prior to To verify that FreeBSD recognizes the device, run dmesg and look for an entry for the device. On systems prior to While cdrecord has many options, basic usage is simple. Specify the name f the ISO file to rom and, download the system has multiple burner devices, specify the name of the device to use:.
To determine the device name of the burner, use -scanbus which might produce results like this:. Locate the entry for dkwnload CD burner and use the three numbers separated by commas as the value for dev. Refer to the manual page for cdrecord for other ways to specify this value and for information on writing audio tracks and controlling the write speed. Use the numeric values for scbustargetand lun. For this example, 1,0,0 is the device name to use. In order to produce a data CD, the data files that are going to make up the tracks on the CD must be prepared before they can be burned to the CD.
The simplest usage is to specify the name of the ISO file to create and the path to download files to place into the ISO file system:. This command maps the file names in the specified path to names that fit the limitations of the standard ISO file system, and will exclude files that do not meet the standard for ISO file systems. 1. number of options are available to overcome the dowhload imposed by the standard. The last option of general use is -b.
This is used to specify the location of a boot image downpoad use in producing an "El Torito" bootable CD. This option takes an argument which is the path to a boot image from the top of the tree being written to the CD. By default, mkisofs creates an ISO image in "floppy disk emulation" mode, and thus expects the boot image to be exactlyor KB in size. Some boot loaders, like the one used by the FreeBSD distribution media, do not use emulation mode. In this case, -no-emul-boot should be used.
There are many other options available for mkisofs to fine-tune its behavior. Download to mkisofs 8 for details. It is ro to copy a downloaad CD downloxd an image file that is functionally equivalent to the image file created with mkisofs. To do so, use dd with the device name as the input file and the name of the ISO to create as the output file:. Once an ISO has been burned to a CD, it can be mounted by specifying the file system type, the name of the device containing the CD, and an existing mount point:.
Since mount assumes that a file system is of type ufsan Incorrect super block error will occur if -t cd is not included when mounting a data CD. While any data CD can be mounted this way, disks with certain ISO extensions might behave oddly. For example, Joliet disks store all filenames in two-byte Unicode characters. If some non-English characters show up as question marks, specify the local charset with -C. This can be done either by adding this line to loader.
Occasionally, Device not configured will be displayed when trying to mount a data CD. This usually means that the CD drive has not detected a disk in the tray, or that the drive is not visible on the bus. It can take a couple of seconds for a CD drive to detect media, so be patient. To resolve this, a custom kernel can be created which increases the default SCSI delay. This tells the SCSI bus to downkoad 15 seconds during boot, to give the CD drive every possible chance to kw the bus reset.
This is known as burning a raw data CD and some people do this for backup purposes. This type of disk can not be mounted as a normal 13. CD. In order to retrieve the data burned to such a CD, the data must be read from the raw device node. For example, this command will extract a compressed tar file located on the second CD device into the current working directory:. To duplicate an audio CD, extract downloqd audio data from the CD to a series of files, then write these files to a blank CD.
If the FreeBSD version is less than This command can be used to extract all of the audio tracks, with each track written to rom separate WAV dowwnload download the current working directory:. A device name does not need to be specified if there is only one CD device on the system. Refer to the cdda2wav manual page for instructions on how to specify a device and to learn more about the other options available for this command.
Make sure that 2,0 is set appropriately, as described in Burning a CD. This format is write once. A single layer recordable DVD can hold up to 4,, bytes which is actually 4. A distinction must be made between the physical media and the application. Before choosing the type of media, ensure that both the burner and the DVD-Video player are compatible with the media under consideration. To perform DVD recording, use growisofs 1. This support is not needed if the burner uses the USB interface.
Since growisofs 1 is a front-end to mkisofs downlozd, it will invoke mkisofs 8 to create the file system layout and perform the write on the DVD. This means that an image of the data does not need to be created before the burning 1.3. Refer to mkisofs 8 for more details. For the initial session recording, -Z is used for both single and multiple sessions. Using -dvd-compat indicates that the disk will be closed f that the recording will be unappendable. The write speed should be detected and ro set according to the media and the drive being used.
Refer to growisofs 1 for example usage. In order to support working rom larger than 4. This is required only when creating an ISO image file or when writing files directly to a disk.
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Otherwise it will look as if it contains corrupted files. When an ISO image already contains large files, no additional options are required for growisofs 1 to burn that image on a disk. If an image of the DVD-Video file system already exists, it can be burned in the same way as any other image. This option implies the -dvd-compat growisofs 1 option.
It is recommended to let growisofs 1 take care of this automatically whenever appropriate. Instead, write over the previous recording like this:. This operation consists of merging a new session to the existing one as it is not considered to be multi-session writing. The same mkisofs 8 options used to burn the initial session should be used during next writes. However, a non-virgin DVD-RW in sequential format needs to be blanked before writing a new initial session. One should instead use restricted overwrite mode with any DVD-RW as this format is more flexible than the default of incremental sequential.
To append some data to a previous 1.3, use -M with growisofs 1. However, if data is appended on a DVD-RW in incremental sequential mode, a new session will be created on the disc and the result will be a multi-session disc. Instead, overwrite the disc with -Z. It is also possible to grow an download ISO file system written on the disc with -M.
The result will be a one-session DVD. The result will be a single-session disc. Use this method to add data after an initial write on these types of media. Since some space on the media is used between each session to mark the end and start of sessions, one should add sessions with a large amount of data to optimize media space. In this example, the whole disk space will be formatted with a standard UFS2 file system:. The DVD device, acd0must be changed according to the configuration. A floppy rom needs to be low-level formatted before it can be used.
This is usually done by the vendor, but formatting is a good way to check media integrity.
To low-level format the floppy disk on FreeBSD, use fdformat 1. When using this utility, make note of any donload messages, as these can help determine if the disk is good or bad. After low-level formatting the disk, create a disk doanload as it is needed by the system to determine the size of the disk and its geometry. To write the disk label, use bsdlabel 8 :. The floppy is now ready to be high-level formatted with a file system.
The disk is now ready for use. These file systems are implemented as user space programs which interact with the fusefs 5 kernel module via a well defined interface. Before using a FUSE file system we need to load the fusefs 5 sk module:. Use sysrc 8 to load the module at startup:. Suppose a USB disk is plugged in.
Getting ROMs for Amiga emulation
The disk partition information can be viewed with gpart 8 :. Implementing a backup downlad is essential in order to have the ability to recover from disk failure, accidental file deletion, random file corruption, or complete machine destruction, including destruction of on-site backups. The backup type and schedule will vary, depending upon the importance of the data, the granularity needed for file restores, and the amount of acceptable downtime. Some possible backup techniques include:.
Archives of the whole system, backed up onto permanent, off-site media. This provides protection against all of the problems listed above, but is slow and inconvenient to restore from, especially for non-privileged users. File system snapshots, which are useful for restoring deleted files or previous versions of files. Typically, a mix of backup techniques is used.
For example, one could create a schedule to automate a weekly, full system backup that is stored off-site and to supplement this backup with hourly ZFS snapshots. In addition, one could make a manual backup of individual directories dwonload files before making file edits or deletions.
Commodore Amiga ROMs Kickstart roms, games and ISOs to download for emulation
This section describes some of the utilities which can be used to create and manage backups on a FreeBSD system. These utilities work at the disk block level, below the abstractions of the files, links, and directories that are created by file systems. Unlike other backup software, dump backs up an entire file system and is unable to backup only part of a file system or a directory tree that spans multiple file systems.
Instead of writing files and directories, dump writes the raw data blocks that comprise files and directories.Nov 15, · Download File Size MB. File Count 1. Create Date November 15, Last Updated December 1, KS ROM v (A,A,A) rev (k).. 2) Télécharger les Kickstarts principaux Kickstart ( - - ) à placer dans le répertoire "Rom". Exemple: pour faire démarrer un Amiga il faut utiliser le. Dear Twitpic Community - thank you for all the wonderful photos you have taken over the years. We have now placed Twitpic in an archived state.
The default parameters assume a backup to a 9-track tape, rather than to another type of media 1.3 to the high-density tapes available today. These defaults must be overridden on the command line. It is possible to backup a file system across the network to a another system or to a tape drive attached to another computer.
While the rdump 8 and rrestore 8 utilities can be used for this purpose, they are not considered to be secure. Instead, one can use dump and restore in a more secure fashion over an SSH connection. Download built-in utilities are available for backing up and restoring specified files and directories as needed. A good choice for making a backup of all of the files in a directory is tar 1.
Switches can be used to instead specify the name of a backup file. Rom creating a backup file, make sure that the backup is not saved to the same directory that is being backed up. To restore the entire backup, cd into the directory to restore into and specify the name of the backup. Note that this will overwrite any newer versions of files in the restore directory.